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Current Research

 

The Human Factor in Online Banking

Acronym

KVDB-2

Time schedule

2013-2018

Researchers

Jurjen Jansen MSc (PhD-candidate), Prof. dr. Wouter Stol, Dr. Nicolien Kop,

Students involved (from)

Jildau Borwell MSc  (Police Academy)

Contact

j.jansen@nhl.nl

Main research question

To what extent can safety and security of online banking be improved from an end-user perspective?

Summary

The goal of this study is to improve the safety and security of online banking from an end-user perspective. The threats central to this study are phishing and malware attacks on end-users. In order to answer the main research question, two approaches are taken. First, behaviour leading towards online banking fraud victimization and characteristics of victims are studied. Learning more about victims and how victimization takes place may lead to more knowledge on how to combat online banking fraud effectively. Second, motivations on precautionary online behaviour are studied. Knowledge on this issue may contribute to strengthen the weakest link in safety and security of online banking: the end-user, hence increase their online resilience, that is, make them better able to protect themselves against online banking fraud. This study falls within the scope of behavioural information security research.  

Funding

Dutch Banking Association & Dutch Police

 

Secure Communication Between Banks and Their Customers

Acronym

KVDB-3

Time schedule

2012-2017

Researchers

Sven Kiljan MSc (PhD-candidate), Prof. dr. Marko van Eekelen, Prof. dr. Wouter Stol

Contact

marko.vaneekelen@ou.nl

Summary

The research consists of exploring, expanding and evaluating usable security in online banking. For exploration, 80 banks worldwide were examined on which user authentication methods they employed for home and mobile banking, as well as on the applied communications security measures. A proposal to expand the existing options that banks have to authenticate transactions initiated by users was suggested with the name What You Enter Is What You Sign. This is a more secure and usable alternative to the well known What You See Is What You Sign transaction authorization scheme. Also, two methods were proposed to compare and evaluate existing and new online banking authentication methods.

Funding

Dutch Banking Association & Dutch Police

 

Public Private Partnerships in Fighting Internet Banking Fraud

Acronym

KVDB-4

Time schedule

2012-2017

Researchers

Sanne Boes MSc (PhD-candidate), Prof. Evert Stamhuis, Prof. dr. Wouter Stol

Contact

s.boes@nhl.nl

Main research question

How can the public-private fight of online banking fraud optimally effective be arranged?

Summary

This research focuses on the detection, investigation and prosecution of online banking fraud. In the Netherlands, the amount of public-private partnerships that aim to fight online banking fraud is growing. Stakeholders, especially the banking industry and criminal justice authorities, are therefore working together. The main problem is that legislation concerning criminal justice is only applicable to the public authorities, and not to the private investigators. Therefore, the legal boundaries of private contribution to criminal justice have been – and still are – unclear, and thus also the allocation of tasks and responsibilities. Aim of this research is therefore to outline the legal framework and to make a proposal to improve it, so that results of private research can be used in criminal proceedings in a legally acceptable way and the public-private arrangement of tasks and responsibilities remains optimally effective.

Funding

Dutch Banking Association & Dutch Police

 

Teenage Crime Fighters on the Internet

Acronym

TCF

Time schedule

2016-2017

Researchers

Dr. Joyce Kerstens, Sander Veenstra MSc, Sanne Boes MSc

Students involved (from)

Ayla Bosma (NHL), Doutsen van der Ploeg (UvA), Irene Hovenga (NHL)

Contact

j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Main research question

The main research question is whether and how youth can contribute to solving relevant safety issues and how their expertise can be utilized for police work in a digital society. 

Summary

The present pilot study focuses on the deployment of selected and screened youth in the execution of police work, more specifically providing information on (online) safety issues to peers and police officers and solving assignments based on criminal investigation case studies in a controlled environment. The pilot study consists of three components: an online community, a notification system and physical meetups (hackatons). Youth can download their assignments and upload their solutions via the online community which is also provided with a helpdesk function. The notification system informs youth about new assignments and provides feedback on uploaded solutions. During the physical meetups, police officers, researchers and youth can learn from each other while executing special assignments. The results can provide insight in whether and how youth can contribute to solving safety issues and how their expertise can be utilized for police work.
Results, process and developments during the pilot will be evaluated carefully. If the challenges and opportunities of deploying youth for police work are evident, the pilot study can be implemented nationwide. 

Funding

Dutch Police

 Kick-off

 February 1 - 2017
 Click here:  start-pilot-teenage-crimefighters

 

Police Detectives on the TOR Network

Acronym

PDTOR

Time schedule

2017-2020

Researchers

PhD-candidate (vacancy), Prof. dr. Wouter Stol, Prof. dr. Christianne de Poot

Students involved (from)

Ghislaine Ras (NHL)

Contact

wstol@planet.nl

Main research question

The main research question is if and why there is a difference between everyday police practice and how the work should be done according to principles of forensic correctness and legal fairness.

Summary

The present study focuses on police detectives fighting crime on a specific part of the internet: the TOR-network. The core idea is to compare everyday police reality with the demands that are imposed on detective work by principles of both forensic correctness and legal fairness. ‘Forensic correctness’ refers to collecting information in accordance with technological and jurisprudential requirements imposed on law enforcement. ‘Legal fairness’ refers to the police doing their work in accordance with the rule of law and fundamental human rights. The results can help the police to fight crime in modern society appropriately. The results can also help those to whom the police are accountable as well as provide the academic world with new and up-to-date arguments in the ongoing discussion about technology-based policing, fundamental human rights and how the law can be enforced in this newly created digital environment. The study is set up as an international comparative study. Detective work on the TOR-network will be studied in Norway, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The forensic analysis will be carried out in Sweden.

Funding

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in cooperation with NordForsk (The Nordic Countries’ Organisation for Scientific Research)

 

Mental Factors Determining the Use of Digital Forensic Evidence

Time schedule

2017-2020

Researchers

Renske Zuurveen MSc LLM (PhD-candidate), Prof. dr. Wouter Stol

Contact

r.zuurveen@nhl.nl

Main research question

What mental factors determine how the criminal justice system makes use of digital forensic evidence?

Summary

In today's society, digital evidence permeates every aspect of an average person’s life. That is why in practically every criminal investigation some type of digital evidence is recoverable, which offers a lot of opportunities. However, research shows that the criminal justice system does not seize this opportunity. For years now, it is stated that this is due to a lack of knowledge and capacity. The present study focuses on other possible reasons and provides insight into the mental factors that determine the use of digital forensic evidence. 

Funding

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

 

Youth with a Mild Intellectual Disability and Cybersafety

Time schedule

2016-2020

Researchers

Rogier de Groot MSc (PhD-candidate), Dr. Hendrien Kaal, Prof. dr. Wouter Stol

Contact

groot.de.r@hsleiden.nl

Main research question

Which experiences (victimization and offending) do adolescents in the age between 12-19 with MID have on the online risk areas aggression, financial-economic crime, sexual activities, and beliefs?
Which risk and protective factors explain why this population have experiences in these risk areas?
How does knowledge on these experiences and their explanations contribute to the delivery of health care services? 

Summary

Adolescents pose a safety risk in using the internet, like cyberbullying and identity fraude. Adolescents with a mild intellectual disability (MID) seem to be more prone to these risks than average adolescents which can result in victimization and offending behavior. So far little attention has been paid to the online problems of adolescents with MID. Therefore, the aim of this research is to explore the online (risk) behavior of adolescents with MID and to identify important risk and protective factors in order to contribute to the delivery of healthcare services in the Netherlands. 

Funding

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

  

 Public Order Maintainance in a Digital Environment (‘Mayor in Cyber Space’)

 Acronym

 BMiCS

 Time schedule

 2017

 Researchers

 Sanne Boes MSc, Suzanna Twickler LLM, Prof. dr. Wouter Stol, dr. Willem Bantema,
 dr. Michiel Duchateau en prof. mr. Solke Munneke 

 Students involved (from)

 

 Contact

 s.boes@nhl.nl / wstol@planet.nl

 Main research question

Can administrative law (powers of the mayor) be used to regulate online activities that constitute a threat to the public order?

 Summary

These days criminal law is being used to regulate crime and public order, offline as well as online. In the offline world the local authorities also use administrative law for the purpose of public order maintenance. This is not the case in the online world. It has happened on several occasions however that online behavior has led to offline public order disturbances, raising the question why local authorities have to wait for that moment before they can come into action. First this study must give an answer to the question if there does exist a public order online. The next question is if administrative law can be used to regulate online activities that constitute a threat to the online or offline public order? Last but not least the study must make clear how, if at all possible and desirable, this public order maintenance by administrative law may be achieved.

 Funding

 Police and Science

 

Upcoming research

 

Police and the Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System

Acronym

ANPR

Time schedule

2017

Researchers

Dr. Willem Bantema, Sander Veenstra MSc, Prof. dr. Wouter Stol

Students involved (from)

Ayla Bosma (NHL)

Contact

willem.bantema@nhl.nl

Main research question

What effects does ANPR use have on the work of police patrol officers and why?

Summary

Since August 2016 the Dutch police use one national ANPR system consisting of fixed and mobile cameras. The current study must make clear how police patrol officers use ANPR and how this affects what actions they undertake (e.g. checking vehicles and/or persons) and what effect this has (if any) on police outcomes, such as recovering stolen cars and/or making arrests. One of the questions is why police officers do (or do not) make use of the system and why they do (or do not) make use of the information the system is providing. The researchers make use of a model for evaluating the effectiveness of information which was developed in earlier police studies.

Funding

Dutch Police